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Ralph Nader > Opinions/Editorials > Open Letter to FCC Regarding GM Payola

Ms. Kris Monteith,
Bureau Chief,
Enforcement Bureau, Investigations & Hearings Division,
Federal Communications Commission (FCC),
445 12th Street, SW, Room 4-C330
Washington, DC 20554

August 17, 2007

Dear Ms. Monteith:

I am writing to ask that Federal Communications Commission (FCC) conduct an investigation of the activities of certain hosts of radio shows. (See Appendix One — a list of radio hosts participating in the General Motors promotion effort).

On August 6, 2007, Automotive News, the leading trade journal for the automotive industry, reported that GM is wooing radio stars. Its article led with a headline: “Puff Piece. Rush Limbaugh is one of the radio personalities GM is working with to talk up its vehicles.” (See Appendix Two — Automotive News article: General Motors Payola GM woos the radio stars Rush, Whoopi and others plug vehicles on the air, by Mary Connelly.)

Automotive News Reporter Mary Connelly writes that “GM says it doesn’t pay the stars directly for their endorsements, although it advertises on their shows. It gives them new GM cars and trucks to drive for two weeks each month. The company also invites the celebrities to Detroit for private meetings with top executives and VIP tours of GM facilities. The attention is paying off.”

The article notes that Rush Limbaugh said, “GM has a ton of momentum,” he exhaled, “GM cars and trucks have never been better.”

But Rush Limbaugh doesn’t stop there. He waxes further: “They [GM] are working hard and they are thinking smart. Believe in General Motors, folks.” (See Appendix Three — list of stations carrying the Rush Limbaugh Show.)

Dallas disc jockey Chris Ryan, might as well have been crossing over to his advertising buddies and doing the ad. But this was not ad time. This was program time when he declared: “Have you seen all the cool things that’s going on at GM? I have. If you’re thinking about a new car, you got to look at GM.”

Section 47 U.S.C. § 317, requires broadcasters to disclose to their listeners or viewers if matter has been aired in exchange for money, services or other valuable consideration.

Section 47 U.S.C. § 508, requires that, when anyone provides or promises to provide money, services or other consideration to someone to include program matter in a broadcast, that fact must be disclosed in advance of the broadcast, ultimately to the station over which the matter is to be aired.

Based on this article, it appears that content of the broadcasts may violate the sponsorship identification rules.

In any event, the FCC needs to investigate. Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, later to become President in the nineteen twenties, called radio “a public trust.” He believed the public airwaves, being owned by the people, should convey no advertisements whatsoever.

I look forward to your response.


Ralph Nader
P.O. Box 19312
Washington, DC 20036

cc: Mr. Kevin J. Martin
Chairman, FCC

Mr. Jonathan S. Adelstein
Commissioner, FCC

Appendix One

August 6, 2007

General Motors Payola
GM woos the radio stars
Rush, Whoopi and others plug vehicles on the air

By Mary Connelly

Talk talk

GM has enlisted these national radio personalities to talk up its vehicles on their shows.

Michael Baisden, talk show host
Glenn Beck, talk show host
Delilah, song request show
Whoopi Goldberg, talk show host
Sean Hannity, talk show host
Laura Ingraham, talk show host
Rush Limbaugh, talk show host
George Noory, talk show host
Bill O’Reilly, talk show host
Bill Press, talk show host
Jim Rome, sports talk show host
Laura Schlessinger, advice call-in show
Ed Schultz, talk show host
Ryan Seacrest, variety/talk show host
Keith Sweat, music show host
John Tesh, music show host
Big Tigger, music show host
Source: GM

Appendix Two

August 6, 2007

General Motors Payola
GM woos the radio stars
Rush, Whoopi and others plug vehicles on the air

By Mary Connelly

(Detroit) General Motors is recruiting many of America’s best known radio personalities – including Rush Limbaugh, Bill O’Reilly, Laura Schlessinger and Whoopi Goldberg – to talk up its vehicles on the air.

GM says it doesn’t pay the stars directly for their endorsements, although it advertises on their shows. It gives them new GM cars and trucks to drive for two weeks each month. The company also invites the celebrities to Detroit for private meetings with top executives and VIP tours of GM facilities.

The attention is paying off. One day last month, for example, Limbaugh – who has the largest audience in talk radio – told his listeners that “GM cars and trucks have never been better.

“GM has a ton of momentum,” Limbaugh enthused. “They are working hard and they are thinking smart. Believe in General Motors, folks. They’re a classic American company doing it all.”

A Dallas disc jockey named Atom Smasher told his listeners: “I am driving around in this Cadillac, and I am not going to want to give it back – the Cadillac SRX. Named best luxury SUV three years in a row. And do they look good blinged-out. To all of the guys at GM: Good job.”

Said another Dallas DJ, Chris Ryan: “Have you seen all the cool things that’s going on at GM? I have. If you’re thinking about a new car, you got to look to GM.”

‘Emotional connection’

Sam Mancuso, GM’s director of brand marketing alliances and operations, said the company initiated contacts this spring with 17 national radio hosts, as well as dozens of local personalities in cities such as Dallas and Los Angeles.

Mancuso said he and Betsy Lazar, GM executive director of advertising and media operations, have done much of the wooing.

“Radio personalities have unique relationships with their listeners,” Mancuso told Automotive News. “They make a real emotional connection. The audience knows they are being genuine.

“We said, ‘Let’s provide them with information about the vehicles and let them engage and discuss.’ And that is what they are doing. When they come out here and get to meet with us, their eyes open wide. They are so excited about the product.”

GM’s monitoring confirms that the personalities are talking about the company’s vehicles on their programs, Mancuso said. But he insisted that GM does not give any of them a script.

“They are not required to mention GM,” he said. “Do they mention the product? Yes. Do they mention GM? Some yes, some no.”

Limbaugh and both Dallas radio hosts said in their spiels that GM has “24 models that get an EPA-estimated 30 miles per gallon or more on the highway.” They used the words “more than any other manufacturer.” And they all cited E85 flex-fuel vehicles and the Saturn Aura Green Line in discussing GM’s environmental initiatives.

Mancuso would not say how much GM spends to advertise on the hosts’ radio shows.

Limbaugh visited GM headquarters in early May, Mancuso said. He met with Vice Chairman Bob Lutz and design chief Ed Welburn and toured the company’s design center.

Right and left

Mancuso said the radio hosts whom GM works with fall along a broad spectrum of political opinions. The list includes conservative commentators such as Limbaugh, O’Reilly, Schlessinger, Sean Hannity and Glenn Beck. But it also includes liberals such as Bill Press and Ed Schultz.

Other personalities, such as Goldberg, Ryan Seacrest and John Tesh, host essentially apolitical entertainment and music-oriented programs. Jim Rome hosts a daily sports talk show. Other local and national personalities host shows aimed at black and Hispanic audiences.

“There is no political agenda here,” Mancuso said. “We don’t associate ourselves with what (the hosts’) beliefs are.”

Several of the celebrities appear on TV as well as radio. O’Reilly and Hannity host nightly programs on Fox News Channel. Beck is a host on CNN Headline News and contributes to ABC’s “Good Morning America.” Seacrest hosts Fox’s “American Idol” – which is sponsored by Ford Motor Co.

While the personalities may also discuss their GM experiences on TV, Mancuso said, the company is “not involved in that.”

Appendix Three

Stations carrying Rush Limbaugh’s show from

Anchorage KENI 650
Anchorage KGTL 620
Fairbanks KFBX 970
Juneau KJNO 630
Kenai-Soldotna KPEN-F 101.7
Ketchikan KTKN 930
Athens WVNN 770
Birmingham WERC 960
Brewton WEBJ 1240
Cullman WKUL-FM 92.1
Dothan WWNT 1450
Greenville WGYV 1380
Guntersville WTWX-F 95.9
Mobile WPMI 710
Montgomery WLWI 1440
Opelika WANI 1400
Selma WHBB 1490
Sylacauga WFEB 1340
Troy WTBF 970
Tuscaloosa WTBC 1230
Tuscumbia WVNA 1590
El Dorado KELD 1400
Fayetteville KFAY 1030
Fort Smith KYHN 1320
Hope KXAR 1490
Hot Springs KZNG 1340
Jonesboro KEZG-FM 97.1
Jonesboro KBTM 1230
Little Rock KARN-AM/FM AM920/FM102.9
Little Rock – Pine Bluff KCAB 980
Pangburn KSMD 99.1
Searcy KWCK 1300
Bullhead City KZZZ 1490
Holbrook KDJI 1270
Kingman KAAA 1230
Parker KLPZ 1380
Phoenix KFYI 550
Prescott KYCA 1490
Safford KATO 1230
Show Low KVWM 970
Sierra Vista KTAN 1420
Tucson KNST 790
Yuma KBLU 560
Alturas KCFJ 570
Apple Valley KIXW 960
Armed Forces Radio AFRTS – – –
Bakersfield KNZR 1560
Chico KPAY 1290
Eureka KINS 980
Fresno KMJ 580
Grass Valley KNCO 830
Lake Isabella KQAB 1140
Los Angeles KFI 640
Los Angeles KWDJ 1360
Marysville KMYC 1410
Merced KYOS 1480
Modesto KFIV 1360
Monterey-Salinas-Santa Cruz KSCO 1080
Mt. Shasta KNTK 102.3
Mt. Shasta KMJC 620
Palm Springs KPSI 920
Paso Robles KPRL 1230
Redding KQMS 1400
Ridgecrest KWDJ-AM 1360
Sacramento KFBK 1530
San Diego KOGO 600
San Francisco KSFO 560
San Lupis Obispo KVEC 920
Santa Barbara KTMS 990
Santa Maria KSMA 1240
Sonora KVML 1450
South Lake Tahoe KOWL 1490
Stockton KWSX 1280
Yreka KSYC 1490
Basalt KNFO-FM 106.1
Colorado Springs KVOR 740
Cortez KVFC 740
Denver KOA-AM 850
Durango KDGO 1240
Fort Collins KCOL 600
Grand Junction KNZZ 1100
Pueblo KCSJ 590
Steamboat Springs KRMR 107.3 & 100.5
Hartford WTIC 1080
New Haven WELI 960
Stonington/Groto WXLM-FM 102.3
Washington, DC
Washington WMAL 630
Dover WDOV 1410
Rehoboth WGMD-F 92.7
Wilmington WILM 1450
Arcadia WFLN 1480
Cocoa/Melbourne WMMV 1350
Daytona Beach WNDB 1150
Fort Myers WINK 1240
Fort Pierce WJNX 1330
Fort Walton Beach WFTW 1260
Gainesville WSKY-F 97.3
Jacksonville WOKV 690
Jacksonville WOKV-FM 106.5
Lakeland WLKF 1430
Marathon WFFG 1300
Melbourne WMMB 1240
Miami WIOD 610
Naples WNOG 1270
Ocala WOCA 1370
Orlando WFLF 540
Panama City WLTG 1430
Pensacola WCOA 1370
Pine Hills WFLF 540
Port St Lucie WPSL 1590
Punta Gorda WCCF 1580
Sarasota WSPB 1450
Sebring WWTK 730
St. Augustine WFOY 1240
Tampa WFLA-FM 100.7
Tampa WFLA 970
Vero Beach WAXE 1370
West Palm Beach WJNO 1290
Albany WALG 1590
Athens WGAU 1340
Atlanta WGST-A 640
Augusta WGAC 580
Brunswick WGIG 1440
Columbus WDAK 540
Gainesville WDUN 550
Greensboro WRPG-FM 103.9
LaGrange WGSE 720
Lakeland WVGA-FM 105.9
Macon WMAC 940
Rome WLAQ 1410
Savannah WTKS 1290
Statesboro WWNS 1240
Waycross WWGA 1230
Hilo KPUA 670
Honolulu KHVH 830
Kihei KAOI 1110
Cedar Rapids WMT 600
Davenport WOC 1420
Des Moines WHO 1040
Dubuque WDBQ 1490
Estherville KILR 1070
Mason City KGLO 1300
Sheldon KIWA-AM 1550
Sioux City KSCJ 1360
Waterloo KXEL 1540
Boise KIDO 580
Bonners Ferry KBFI 1450
Idaho Falls KID-AM 590
Pocatello KWIK 1240
Sandpoint KSPT 1400
Twin Falls KLIX 1310
Carbondale WCIL 1020
Champaign WDWS 1400
Chicago WLS-AM 890
Decatur WSOY 1340
Effingham WCRA 1090
Fairfield WFIW 1390
Galesburg WGIL 1400
Herrin WJPF 1340
Mt. Vernon WMIX 940
Peoria WMBD 1470
Quincy WTAD 930
Rockford WROK 1440
Springfield WTAX 1240
Anderson WHBU 1240
Bedford WBIW 1340
Bloomington WGCL 1370
Centerville WHON 930
Columbus WCSI 1010
Evansville WGBF 1280
Ft. Wayne WOWO 1190
Indianapolis WIBC 1070
Jasper WITZ 990
Kokomo WIOU 1350
Logansport WSAL 1230
South Bend WSBT 960
Vincennes WAOV 1450
Chanute KKOY-A 1460
Garden City KBUF 1030
Holcomb KBUF 1030
Hutchinson KWBW 1450
Kansas City KMBZ 980
Liberal KSCB-AM 1270
Manhattan KMAN 1350
Salina KSAL 1150
Topeka KMAJ 1440
Wichita KNSS 1240
Bowling Green WKCT 930
Burnside WSFE 910
Corbin WKDP 1330
Hopkinsville WHOP 1230
Lexington WLAP 630
Louisville WHAS 840
Madisonville WTTL 1310
Mayfield WNGO-AM 1320
Owensboro WOMI 1490
Paducah WKYX 570
Prestonsburg WDOC 1310
Alexandria KSYL 970
Baton Rouge WJBO 1150
Global/short wave WRNO Shortwave 15.420 mhz*
Lafayette KPEL-FM 105.1
Lake Charles KAOK 1400
Monroe KNOE 1440
Natchitoches KNOC 1450
New Orleans WTKL-FM 105.3
New Orleans KTIB 640
New Orleans WWL 105.3 FM
Shreveport KEEL 710
Thibodaux KTIB 640
Boston WRKO 680
Pittsfield WBEC 1430
Springfield WHYN 560
West Yarmouth WXTK-FM 94.9
Worcester WTAG 580
Baltimore WCBM 680
Frederick WFMD 930
Frostburg WFRB 560
Salisbury WICO 1320
Boothbay Harbor WCME 96.7
Howland-Bangor WVOM-F 103.9
Monticello WREM 710
Portland WGAN 560
Presque Isle WEGP 1390
“Muskegon, MI” WKBZ 1520
Adrian WABJ 1490
Alpena WATZ 1450
Battle Creek WBCK 930
Benton Harbor WSJM 1400
Big Rapids WBRN 1460
Cadillac WATT 1240
Detroit WJR-AM 760
Escanaba WCHT 600
Flint WWCK 1570
Grand Rapids WOOD 1300
Hancock WMPL 920
Iron Mountain WMIQ 1450
Ishpeming WIAN 1240
Jackson WKHM 970
Kalamazoo WKMI 1360
Lansing WJIM 1240
Ludington WKLA 1450
Manistee WMTE 1340
Marquette WDMJ 1320
Saginaw WSGW 790
Sandusky WMIC 660
Sault Ste Marie WKNW 1400
Shepherd WMMI 830
Traverse City WTCM 580
Alexandria KXRA 1490
Bemidji KKBJ 1360
Brainerd WWWI 1270 khz
East Grand Forks KCNN-AM 1590
Fergus Falls KBRF 1250
Minneapolis KTLK-FM 100.3
Nashwauk WNMT 650
Park Rapids KPRM 870
St. Cloud KNSI 1450
Staples/Wadena KSKK-F 94.7
Willmar KDJS 1540
Winona KWNO 1230
Cape Girardeau KZIM 960
Columbia KFRU 1400
Farmington KREI 800
Jefferson City KWOS 950
Joplin KZRG 1310
Kansas City KMBZ 980
Moberly KWIX 1230
Osage Beach KRMS 1150
Poplar Bluff KWOC 930
Sedalia KSIS 1050
Sikeston KSIM 1400
Springfield KWTO 560
St. James KTTR-F 99.7
St. Joseph KFEQ 680
St. Louis KMOX 1120
Thayer KALM 1290
Waynesville KJPW 1390
West Plains KWPM 1450
Willow Springs KUKU 1330
Biloxi WMLC 1270
Columbia WCJU 1450
Greenwood WABG 960
Jackson WMLC-AM 1270
Jackson WMLC 1270
Jackson WJNT 1180
Laurel/Hattiesbu WMXI-FM 98.1
Meridian WMOX 1010
Moss Point WBUV-FM 104.9
Natchez WNAT 1450
Philadelphia WHOC 1490
Tupelo WKMQ 1060
Billings KBUL 970
Bozeman KMMS 1450
Butte KXTL 1370
Hamilton KLYQ 1240
Helena KBLL 1240
Libby KTNY-FM 101.7
Missoula KGVO 1290
Whitefish KJJR 880
North Carolina
Albemarle WSPC 1010
Asheville WWNC 570
Atlantic WTKF-FM 107.3
Blowing Rock WXIT 1200
Burlington WSML 1200
Charlotte WBT-AM 1110
Chester WBT-FM 99.3
Elizabeth City WGAI 560
Fayetteville WFNC 640
Goldsboro WGBR 1150
Hendersonville WHKP 1450
Hickory WHKY 1290
Jacksonville WJNC 1240
Raleigh-Durham WPTF 680
Rutherfordton WCAB 590
Statesville WSIC 1400
Washington WDLX 930
Wilmington WTXY 1540
Wilmington WAAV 980
Winston-Salem WSJS 600
North Dakota
Bismarck/Mandan KFYR 550
Minot KRRZ 1390
Kearney KGFW 1340
Lincoln KLIN 1400
McCook KBRL-AM 1300
Norfolk WJAG 780
North Platte KODY 1240
Omaha KFAB 1110
Scottsbluff KOLT 1320
New Hampshire
Exeter WGIP 1540
Hanover WTSL 1400
Keene WKBK 1220
Laconia WEMJ 1490
Lebanon WTSL 1400
Manchester WGIR 610
Rochester WGIN 930
New Jersey
Hammonton WGYM 1580
Pleasantville WOND 1400
New Mexico
Alamogordo KRSY 1230
Albuquerque KKOB 770
Artesia KSVP 990
Bayard KNFT 950
Farmington KENN 1390
Hobbs KYKK 1110
Las Cruces KOBE 1450
Roswell KBIM 910
Ruidoso Downs KRUI 1490
Elko KTSN 1340
Las Vegas KXNT 840
Reno KKOH 780
New York
Albany-Schenectady WGY 810
Binghamton WNBF 1290
Buffalo WBEN 930
Elmira WWLZ 820
Hornell WLEA 1480
Ithaca WHCU 870
Massena WYBG 1050
New York WABC 770
Ogdensburg WSLB 1400
Olean WOEN 1360
Poughkeepsie WGHQ 920
Rochester WHAM 1180
Syracuse WSYR 570
Utica WIBX 950
Watertown WTNY 790
Willsboro/Brlng WXZO-FM 96.7
WKSN-AM Jamestown 1340
Akron WHLO 640AM
Ashtabula WFUN 970
Chillicothe WBEX 1490
Cincinnati WKRC 550
Cleveland WTAM 1100
Columbus WTVN 610
Dayton WHIO 1290
Defiance WONW 1280
Findlay “WFIN ” 1330
Ironton WIRO 1230
Lima WIMA 1150
Mansfield WMAN 1400
Mansfield WMAN 1400
Marion WMRN 1490
Toledo WSPD 1370
Wheeling WOMP 1290
Youngstown WKBN 570
Zanesville WHIZ 1240
Bartlesville KWON 1400
Clinton KCLI 1320
Clinton KCLI-AM 1320
Enid KGWA 960
Oklahoma City KTOK 1000
Tulsa KRMG 740
Astoria KAST 1370
Baker City KBKR 1490
Bend KBND 1110
Coquille KWRO 630
Enterprise KWVR 1340
Eugene KLOO-AM 1340
Eugene KPNW 1120
Grants Pass KAJO 1270
Klamath Falls KAGO 1150
La Grande KLBM 1450
Medford KMED 1440
Pendleton KUMA 1290
Portland KEX 1190
Roseburg KQEN 1240
Salem KYKN 1430
The Dalles KACI 1300
Allentown WAEB 790
Altoona WRTA 1240
Bedford, WBFD 1310
Bellefonte WBLF 970
Du Bois WCED 1420
Erie WJET 1400
Franklin WFRA 1450
Harrisburg WHP 580
Lewistown WIEZ 670
Meadville WMGW 1490
Milton WMLP 1380
Oil City WOYL 1340
Philadelphia WPHT 1210
Pittsburgh WPGB 104.7
Pottsville WPPA 1360
Reading WEEU 830
Scranton WGBI 910
Titusville WTIV 1230
W Hazleton/Hazle WKZN 1300
Wilkes-Barre WILK-A 980
Williamsport WRAK-AM 1400
Williamsport WRKK 1190
York WSBA 910
Rhode Island
Providence WPRO 630
South Carolina
Anderson WAIM 1230
Charleston WSCC-FM 94.3
Columbia WVOC 560
Florence WJMX 970
Greenville WYRD 1330
Greenwood WCRS 1450
Myrtle Beach WRNN-FM 99.5
Spartanburg WORD 910
Sumter WDXY 1240
South Dakota
Mitchell KORN 1490
Pierre KGFX 1060
Rapid City KOTA 1380
Sioux Falls KELO 1320
Watertown KSDR 1480
Athens WYXI 1390
Columbia WKRM 1340
Cookeville WPTN 780
Crossville WAEW 1330
Jackson WTJS 1390
Johnson City WJCW 910
Knoxville WNOX 100.3 FM
Martin WCMT 1410
McMinnville WAKI 1230
Memphis WREC 600
Morristown WMTN 1300
Nashville WLAC 1510
Abilene KSLI 1280
Abilene KXYL 104.7
Amarillo KGNC 710
Austin KLBJ 590
Beaumont KLVI 560
Big Spring KBST 1490
Brenham KWHI 1280
Calico Rock KJMT-FM 97.1
College Station-Bryan WTAW 1620
Corpus Christi KKTX 1360
Dallas WBAP 820
Edinburg KURV 710
El Paso KTSM 690
Fredericksburg KNAF 910
Houston KTRH-AM 740
Longview KEES 1430
Lubbock KFYO 790
Midland/Odessa KCRS 550
Mt. Pleasant KIMP 960
Nacogdoches KSFA 860
Paris KPTL 1490
Plainview KVOP 1090
San Angelo KKSA 1260
San Antonio WOAI 1200
Temple KTEM 1400
Texarkana KTFS 940
Tyler KTBB 600
Victoria KVNN 1340
Waco KWTX 1230
Wichita Falls KWFS 1290
Cedar City KSUB 590
Logan KVNU 610
Price KOAL 750
Salt Lake City KNRS 570
St. George KDXU 890
Vernal KVEL 920
Blacksburg WFNR 710
Charlottesville WCHV 1260
Danville WBTM 1330
Frederickburg WFVA 1230
Harrisonburg WKCY 1300
Lexington WREL 1450
Norfolk WNIS 790
Onley WESR 1330
Richmond WRVA 1140
Roanoke WFIR 960
Tazewell WTZE 1470
Waynesboro WKCI 970
White Stone WNDJ-F 104.9
Winchester WINC 1400
Barre WSNO 1450
Plattsburgh/Burlington WEAV 960
Randolph WWWT 1320
Rutland WSYB 1380
Springfield WTSM-FM 93.5
Bellingham KGMI 790
Centralia KELA 1470
Ellensburg KXLE 1240
Moses Lake KBSN 1470
Omak KOMW 680
Pasco KFLD 870
Port Angeles KONP 1450
Pullman KQQQ 1150
Seattle KTTH 770
Spokane KQNT 590
Walla Walla KUJ 1420
Wenatchee KPQ 560
Yakima KIT 1280
Eau Claire – Menomonie WMEQ 880
Green Bay WTAQ 1360
LaCrosse WIZM 1410
Madison WIBA 1310
Milwaukee WISN 1130
Omak KOMW 680
Oshkosh WOSH 1490
Sheboygan WHBL 1330
Shell Lake WCSW 940
Superior WDSM 710
Wausau WSAU 550
West Virginia
Bluefield WHIS 1440
Charleston WCHS 580
Huntington WVHU 800
Huntington WZZW 1600
Lewisburg WRON 1400
Matewan WVKM-FM 106.7
Morgantown WAJR 1440
Parkersburg WLTP 1450
Point Pleasant WBGS 1030
Salem/Clarksburg WAJR-FM 103.3
Wheeling WWVA 1170
Casper KTWO 1030
Cheyenne KGAB 650
Cody KODI 1400
Gillette KIML 1270
Laramie KOWB 1290
Sheridan KROE 930